Nature Cell Biology
MIROs and DRP1 drive mitochondrial-derived vesicle biogenesis and promote quality control
König, T., Nolte, H., Aaltonen, M. J., Tatsuta, T., Krols, M., Stroh, T., ... & McBride, H. M.
Membrane trafficking, Microtubules, Mitochondria, Phospholipids, Protein quality control
Mitochondrial-derived vesicles (MDVs) are implicated in diverse physiological processes—for example, mitochondrial quality control—and are linked to various neurodegenerative diseases. However, their specific cargo composition and complex molecular biogenesis are still unknown. Here we report the proteome and lipidome of steady-state TOMM20+ MDVs. We identified 107 high-confidence MDV cargoes, which include all β-barrel proteins and the TOM import complex. MDV cargoes are delivered as fully assembled complexes to lysosomes, thus representing a selective mitochondrial quality control mechanism for multi-subunit complexes, including the TOM machinery. Moreover, we define key biogenesis steps of phosphatidic acid-enriched MDVs starting with the MIRO1/2-dependent formation of thin membrane protrusions pulled along microtubule filaments, followed by MID49/MID51/MFF-dependent recruitment of the dynamin family GTPase DRP1 and finally DRP1-dependent scission. In summary, we define the function of MDVs in mitochondrial quality control and present a mechanistic model for global GTPase-driven MDV biogenesis.