Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences
Mechano-regulation by clathrin pit-formation and passive cholesterol-dependent tubules during de-adhesion
Tithi Mandal, Arikta Biswas, Tanmoy Ghosh, Sreekanth Manikandan, Avijit Kundu, Ayan Banerjee, Dhrubaditya Mitra, Bidisha Sinha
endocytosis, de-adhesion, clathrin, AP2, endosome
Adherent cells ensure membrane homeostasis during de-adhesion by various mechanisms, including endocytosis. Although mechano-chemical feedbacks involved in this process have been studied, the step-by-step build-up and resolution of the mechanical changes by endocytosis are poorly understood. To investigate this, we studied the de-adhesion of HeLa cells using a combination of interference reflection microscopy, optical trapping and fluorescence experiments. We found that de-adhesion enhanced membrane height fluctuations of the basal membrane in the presence of an intact cortex. A reduction in the tether force was also noted at the apical side. However, membrane fluctuations reveal phases of an initial drop in effective tension followed by saturation. The area fractions of early (Rab5-labelled) and recycling (Rab4-labelled) endosomes, as well as transferrin-labelled pits close to the basal plasma membrane, also transiently increased. On blocking dynamin-dependent scission of endocytic pits, the regulation of fluctuations was not blocked, but knocking down AP2-dependent pit formation stopped the tension recovery. Interestingly, the regulation could not be suppressed by ATP or cholesterol depletion individually but was arrested by depleting both. The data strongly supports Clathrin and AP2-dependent pit-formation to be central to the reduction in fluctuations confirmed by super-resolution microscopy. Furthermore, we propose that cholesterol-dependent pits spontaneously regulate tension under ATP-depleted conditions.