Characterization of Fibrodysplasia Ossificans Progessiva relevant Acvr1/Acvr2 Activin receptors in medaka (Oryzias latipes)
Michael Trumpp, Wen Hui Tan, Wiktor Burdzinski, Yara Basler, Jerome Jatzlau, Petra Knaus, Christoph Winkler
Fibrodysplasia Ossificans Progressiva, FOS, activin, bone morphogenetic protein, BMP
Activin and Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) signaling plays crucial roles in vertebrate organ formation, including osteo- and angiogenesis, and tissue homeostasis, such as neuronal maintenance. Activin and BMP signaling needs to be precisely controlled by restricted expression of shared receptors, stoichiometric composition of receptor-complexes and presence of regulatory proteins. A R206H mutation in the human (hs) BMP type I receptor hsACVR1, on the other hand, leads to excessive phosphorylation of Sons of mothers against decapentaplegic (SMAD) 1/5/8. This in turn causes increased inflammation and heterotopic ossification in soft tissues of patients suffering from Fibrodysplasia Ossificans Progressiva (FOP). Several animal models have been established to understand the spontaneous and progressive nature of FOP, but often have inherent limitations. The Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes, ola) has recently emerged as popular model for bone research. To assess whether medaka is suitable as a potential FOP animal model, we determined the expression of Activin receptor type I (ACVR1) orthologs olaAcvr1 and olaAcvr1l with that of Activin type II receptors olaAcvr2ab, olaAcvr2ba and olaAcvr2bb in embryonic and adult medaka tissues by in situ hybridization. Further, we showed that Activin A binding properties are conserved in olaAcvr2, as are the mechanistic features in the GS-Box of both olaAcvr1 and olaAcvr1l. This consequently leads to FOP-typical elevated SMAD signaling when the medaka type I receptors carry the R206H equivalent FOP mutation. Together, this study therefore provides experimental groundwork needed to establish a unique medaka model to investigate mechanisms underlying FOP.