The interactions between PML nuclear bodies and small and medium size DNA viruses
Boris Ryabchenko, Vojtěch Šroller, Lenka Horníková, Alexey Lovtsov, Jitka Forstová & Sandra Huérfano
Membraneless Organelles, DNA Viruses
Promyelocytic leukemia nuclear bodies (PM NBs), often referred to as membraneless organelles, are dynamic macromolecular protein complexes composed of a PML protein core and other transient or permanent components. PML NBs have been shown to play a role in a wide variety of cellular processes. This review describes in detail the diverse and complex interactions between small and medium size DNA viruses and PML NBs that have been described to date. The PML NB components that interact with small and medium size DNA viruses include PML protein isoforms, ATRX/Daxx, Sp100, Sp110, HP1, and p53, among others. Interaction between viruses and components of these NBs can result in different outcomes, such as influencing viral genome expression and/or replication or impacting IFN-mediated or apoptotic cell responses to viral infection. We discuss how PML NB components abrogate the ability of adenoviruses or Hepatitis B virus to transcribe and/or replicate their genomes and how papillomaviruses use PML NBs and their components to promote their propagation. Interactions between polyomaviruses and PML NBs that are poorly understood but nevertheless suggest that the NBs can serve as scaffolds for viral replication or assembly are also presented. Furthermore, complex interactions between the HBx protein of hepadnaviruses and several PML NBs-associated proteins are also described. Finally, current but scarce information regarding the interactions of VP3/apoptin of the avian anellovirus with PML NBs is provided. Despite the considerable number of studies that have investigated the functions of the PML NBs in the context of viral infection, gaps in our understanding of the fine interactions between viruses and the very dynamic PML NBs remain. The complexity of the bodies is undoubtedly a great challenge that needs to be further addressed.