abberior dyes & labels
Fluorescence-based super-resolution-microscopy strategies for chromatin studies
Thomas C. Q. Burgers & Rifka Vlijm
Super-resolution microscopy (SRM) is a prime tool to study chromatin organisation at near biomolecular resolution in the native cellular environment. With fluorescent labels DNA, chromatin-associated proteins and specific epigenetic states can be identified with high molecular specificity. The aim of this review is to introduce the field of diffraction-unlimited SRM to enable an informed selection of the most suitable SRM method for a specific chromatin-related research question. We will explain both diffraction-unlimited approaches (coordinate-targeted and stochastic-localisation-based) and list their characteristic spatio-temporal resolutions, live-cell compatibility, image-processing, and ability for multi-colour imaging. As the increase in resolution, compared to, e.g. confocal microscopy, leads to a central role of the sample quality, important considerations for sample preparation and concrete examples of labelling strategies applicable to chromatin research are discussed. To illustrate how SRM-based methods can significantly improve our understanding of chromatin functioning, and to serve as an inspiring starting point for future work, we conclude with examples of recent applications of SRM in chromatin research.