Effects of Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles on Cell Growth and Migration of A549 Cells under Simulated Microgravity
Wang, M., Li, J., Zhang, S., You, Y., Zhu, X., Xiang, H., ... & Li, Y.
simulated microgravity, titanium dioxide nanoparticles, cell migration, cytoskeleton, focal adhesion kinase
With the increasing application of nanomaterials in aerospace technology, the long-term space exposure to nanomaterials especially in the space full of radiation coupled with microgravity condition has aroused great health concerns of the astronauts. However, few studies have been conducted to assess these effects, which are crucial for seeking the possible intervention strategy. Herein, using a random positioning machine (RPM) to simulate microgravity, we investigated the behaviors of cells under simulated microgravity and also evaluated the possible toxicity of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs), a multifunctional nanomaterial with potential application in aerospace. Pulmonary epithelial cells A549 were exposed to normal gravity (1 g) and simulated gravity (~10−3 g), respectively. The results showed that simulated microgravity had no significant effect on the viability of A549 cells as compared with normal gravity within 48 h. The effects of TiO2 NPs exposure on cell viability and apoptosis were marginal with only a slightly decrease in cell viability and a subtle increase in apoptosis rate observed at a high concentration of TiO2 NPs (100 μg/mL). However, it was observed that the exposure to simulated microgravity could obviously reduce A549 cell migration compared with normal gravity. The disruption of F-actin network and the deactivation of FAK (Tyr397) might be responsible for the impaired mobility of simulated microgravity-exposed A549 cells. TiO2 NPs exposure inhibited cell migration under two different gravity conditions, but to different degrees, with a milder inhibition under simulated microgravity. Meanwhile, it was found that A549 cells internalized more TiO2 NPs under normal gravity than simulated microgravity, which may account for the lower cytotoxicity and the lighter inhibition of cell migration induced by the same exposure concentration of TiO2 NPs under simulated microgravity at least partially. Our study has provided some tentative information on the effects of TiO2 NPs exposure on cell behaviors under simulated microgravity.