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Yersinia remodels epigenetic histone modifications in human macrophages
Bekere, I., Huang, J., Schnapp, M., Rudolph, M., Berneking, L., Ruckdeschel, K., ... & Aepfelbacher, M.
Macrophages, Gene expression, Histone modification, Guanosine triphosphatase, Yersinia, Gene regulation, Epigenetics, Histones
Various pathogens systematically reprogram gene expression in macrophages, but the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. We investigated whether the enteropathogen Yersinia enterocolitica alters chromatin states to reprogram gene expression in primary human macrophages. Genome-wide chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) seq analyses showed that pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) induced up- or down-regulation of histone modifications (HMod) at approximately 14500 loci in promoters and enhancers. Effectors of Y. enterocolitica reorganized about half of these dynamic HMod, with the effector YopP being responsible for about half of these modulatory activities. The reorganized HMod were associated with genes involved in immune response and metabolism. Remarkably, the altered HMod also associated with 61% of all 534 known Rho GTPase pathway genes, revealing a new level in Rho GTPase regulation and a new aspect of bacterial pathogenicity. Changes in HMod were associated to varying degrees with corresponding gene expression, e. g. depending on chromatin localization and cooperation of the HMod. In summary, infection with Y. enterocolitica remodels HMod in human macrophages to modulate key gene expression programs of the innate immune response.