International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Self-Entrapment of Antimicrobial Peptides in Silica Nanoparticles for Stable and Effective Antimicrobial Peptide Delivery System
Mi-Ran Ki , Sung Ho Kim, Tae In Park, Seung Pil PACK
Antimicrobial peptide; AMP; KR12; CPP-KR12@Si; bacterial infection; drug delivery; silica forming peptide; biomimetic silica deposition
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have emerged as a promising solution to tackle bacterial infections and combat antibiotic resistance. However, their clinical application has been hindered by their vulnerability to protease degradation and toxicity towards mammalian cells. To overcome these challenges, our study aims to develop a method to enhance the stability and safety of AMPs, applicable to effective drug-device combination products. KR12 antimicrobial peptide was chosen and in order to further enhance its delivery and efficacy, HIV TAT protein-derived cell-penetrating peptide (CPP) was fused to form CPP-KR12. A new product, CPP-KR12@Si, was developed by forming silica nanoparticles with self-entrapped CPP-KR12 peptide using the biomimetic silica precipitability due to its cationic nature. Peptide delivery from CPP-KR12@Si to bacteria and cells was delivered at a slightly delayed rate with improved stability against trypsin treatment and a reduction in cytotoxicity over CPP-KR12. Finally, the antimicrobial potential of CPP-KR12@Si/bone graft substitute (BGS) combination product was demonstrated, which is coated with CPP-KR12 in the form of nanoparticles on the surface of BGS. Self-entrapped AMP in silica nanoparticles is a safe and effective AMP delivery method that will be useful for developing a drug/device combination product for tissue regeneration.