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Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy
Multimodal study of CHI3L1 inhibition and its effect on angiogenesis, migration, immune response and refractive index of cellular structures in glioblastoma
Agnieszka Rusak, Igor Buzalewicz, Monika Mrozowska, Benita Wiatrak, Katarzyna Haczkiewicz-Leśniak, Mateusz Olbromski, Alicja Kmiecik, Edward Krzyżak, Aleksandra Pietrowska, Jakub Moskal, Marzenna Podhorska-Okołów, Halina Podbielska, Piotr Dzięgiel
CHI3L1 inhibition, G721-0282, U-87 MG, Glioblastoma, Angiogenesis
Glioblastoma is one of the most aggressive tumours with a poor response to treatment and a poor prognosis for patients. One of the proteins expressed in glioblastoma tissue is CHI3L1 (YKL-40), which is upregulated and known for its angiogenesis-supporting and pro-tumour immunomodulatory effects in a variety of cancers. In this paper we present the anti-angiogenic, anti-migratory and immunomodulatory effects of the compound G721-0282, an inhibitor of CHI3L1. The inhibitor-induced changes were investigated using conventional techniques as well as the novel label-free digital holographic tomography (DHT), a quantitative phase imaging technique that allows the reconstruction of the refractive index (RI), which is used as an image contrast for 3D visualisation of living cells. DHT allowed digital staining of individual cells and intercellular structures based only on their specific RI. Quantitative spatially resolved analysis of the RI data shows that the concentration of G721-0282 leads to significant changes in the density of cells and their intracellular structures (in particular the cytoplasm and nucleus), in the volume of lipid droplets and in protein concentrations. Studies in the U-87 MG glioblastoma cell line, THP-1 monocytes differentiated into macrophages, human microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC-1) and in the spheroid model of glioblastoma composed of U-87 MG, HMEC-1 and macrophages suggest that inhibition of CHI3L1 may have potential in the antitumour treatment of glioblastoma. In this paper, we also propose a spheroid model for in vitro studies that mimics this type of tumour.