Efficient axonal trafficking of endolysosomes depends on the balanced ratio of microtubule tyrosination and detyrosination
Anja Konietzny, Leticia Peris, Yuhao Han, Yannes Popp, Bas van Bommel, Aditi Sharma, Philippe Delagrange, Nicolas Arbez, Marie-Jo Moutin, Marina Mikhaylova
microtubule; axonal transport; axon initial segment; AIS; post-translational modifications
In neurons, the microtubule (MT) cytoskeleton forms the basis for long-distance protein transport from the cell body into and out of dendrites and axon. To maintain neuronal polarity, the axon initial segment (AIS) serves as a physical barrier, separating the axon from the somatodendritic compartment and acting as a filter for axonal cargo. Selective trafficking is further instructed by axonal enrichment of MT post-translational modifications, which affect MT dynamics and the activity of motor proteins. Here, we compared two knockout mouse lines lacking the respective enzymes for MT tyrosination and detyrosination and we found that both knockouts led to a shortening of the AIS. Neurons from both lines also showed an increased immobile fraction of endolysosomes present in the axon, whereas mobile organelles displayed shortened run distances in the retrograde direction. Overall, our results highlight the importance of maintaining the balance of tyrosinated/detyrosinated MT for proper AIS length and axonal transport processes.